What is Christian Socialism? Have Christians always been Socialists?

In this article, I aim to explain the origins of ‘Christian Socialism’. I will attempt to analyse its basis on Biblical principles, and relate the massive effect it has had on history.  I will mainly focus on Early Modern-Modern examples of this.

From the Levellers to the socialists in Parliament today, Christians have been at the forefront of social reform. Following in the footsteps of Jesus, Christians from all political backgrounds have been heavily involved in helping the poor and sick in society; moreover ‘Christian socialists’ have been important reformers.

Before I start, let me define the term ‘Christian Socialism’. The Encyclopaedia Britannica states that “The term was generally associated with the demands of Christian activists for a social [programme] of political and economic action on behalf of all individuals, impoverished or wealthy…was used in contradistinction to laissez-faire individualism.”  When we talk about this, we do not mean Marxism, or Communism.  They are ideals that are unreachable and are in fact quite dangerous to the average person on the street.  Christian Socialism is therefore about helping the poor, helping the rich, and above all combating the individualism mentality, so prevalent today.

I consider myself a so-called ‘Christian socialist’, and believe that Christians have been called to be ‘social warriors’, fighting to help the lives of the poor and vulnerable.

Common objections to Christian Socialism

Some use the argument that these earthly needs will soon pass, this world is not important as the next (which is true), to argue against the political work of Christians. But to this, I say, look to the Bible, what did Jesus do and preach?  He looked after the poor; he gave to the poor, and ultimately gave them the ultimate gift – His life.  He healed the sick and stood up for the vulnerable. He didn’t just give the blind, lame and sick the Gospel, he healed them too.  He had little care for money, or for material needs (which is something the church seems to care too much about today).

Another argument against getting involved politically is that, Jesus never supported any political institution; his focus was on the word, and on those around him. That is indeed true, and in the modern world as Christians, we can have a massive impact outside politics, but we can help inside politics too and we must take action to help all those in need.  We shouldn’t be driven by political allegiances and divided by political divisions, but by a strong desire to help, and thus being that light.  Personally, I couldn’t give a monkeys as to what political party you belong to (though I think the extremes of either left or right should be avoided), but as Christians we should do our upmost to help people. Christian Socialism is a means to do this.

Christian Socialism is not just for Parliament, it is how we interact with the world – seeing that it needs that light, and thus trying to help all those around us.   It recognises that Capitalism can be evil, rooted in greed, idolatry and oppression and that the rich get richer and the poor poorer.  Some may think that I am suggesting that we must bring down the system, we must revolt!  I am saying neither of this, but rather suggesting that Capitalism has its faults – it is a product of a sinful world.  Sometimes Christians can excuse themselves, stating that God has put them in that place so it doesn’t matter, but it does!  Sin has put people in different places, and we must tackle the evils, to help those around us!  It is our duty as Christians, to actually make an impact; we are not to be idle and be lazy, but to be active!  The world idolises money, status and fame, as Christians we shouldn’t want any of that.

 

Christian Socialism – Biblical basis?

Before I go into the history of the movement, let us examine the Scriptures and see what they say. James 5: 1-6 (in the context of rich oppressors) says:

Come now, you rich, weep and howl for the miseries that are coming upon you. Your riches have rotted and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver have rusted, and their rust will be evidence against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up for treasure for the last days. Behold, the wages of the labourers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out; and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. You have lived on the earth in luxury and in pleasure; you have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter

James isn’t holding back here is he! The rich and the wealthy that store it all for themselves will reap what they sow.  Those who oppress will be judged.  This warning should be taken seriously by Christians, and by no means should we be happy with a system that does this.  The Old Testament has a variety of verses that tell us not to be idle, but to do good and help people. Isaiah 1:15-17 says:

Even though you make many prayers, I will not listen; your hands are full of blood…cease to do evil, learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow

And Psalm 82:

Give justice to the weak and the fatherless; maintain the right of the afflicted and the destitute. Rescue the weak and the needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked

And Psalm 112:

Blessed is the man who fears the Lord, who greatly delights in his commandments!…He has distributed freely, he has given to the poor; his righteousness endures forever; his horn is exalted in honour

The Bible certainly doesn’t suggest that we should be rising in revolution, bringing down the state and living on communes. We definitely shouldn’t be militant; but it does suggest a change of heart, one that seeks to help the poor, that hates oppression, loves justice, does good and cares for all.

So far, we have seen that there are passages in Scripture that show Christian Socialism is based on Biblical principles. The Early Church can be argued as an example of ‘Christian Socialism’ in practice.  Acts 2-5 promotes a life of sharing and giving.  Whilst doing research I notice that some sites, such as The Gospel Coalition seem to suggest otherwise.

I do think their arguments are really hazy and seem to me, they are trying to make excuses. There also seems to be confusion between Socialism and Communism.  There are many strands of Socialism, for example. Christian Socialism is one of these many strands.  The Early Church can be seen from these passages to share what they had, there was no class structure either.  They were united in their one desire for God.  The Church were being different, it shows us how we should live.  A desire for private property is worldly.  Yes, there is nothing wrong with owning a house, don’t get me wrong, but if we cling to these, if we are not prepared to give them up at a moments notice, then we are doing it wrong.

 

History of Christian Socialism

Earlier forms of Christian Socialism include radical dissent movements in the Middle Ages (the Peasants’ Revolt, John Wycliffe and Lollards), Levellers and Diggers in the time of the English civil war (1642-1651), and the Corresponding Societies of the 1790s as well as several prominent figures of the Victorian era. Remember none of these were revolutionary movements, when we use the term ‘revolt’, it means in simple terms that the people wanted to be heard and ‘revolting’ was a way of getting their grievances addressed properly by the central government, not a full-blown revolution.  Let us now jump to the 17th century.  It’s a period I know fairly well.  There were certainly socialists before this time and Christians were making a big impact socially before the 1600s, but for sake of space and time, let us look at the Levellers.  For a greater look into this, do read my post I made for the Christians on the Left.

levellers
One of the many pamphlets made by the Levellers, whom argued for rights for all men, and equality in courts

The Levellers have often been looked down upon by certain Christians, mainly as they opposed certain factions within the Puritan movement, notably Parliamentarians. When I discuss Puritanism, I effectively mean the middle class during the middle of the seventeenth century, those in the Church of England and those who were in power.  Levellers argued for votes for all men, and social justice, they wanted a fairer society for all.  The Parliamentarians during the civil war, under Cromwell, crushed their protests; their ideas of social reform threatened those in power.  They were a mass movement, and desired change through their petitions, pamphlets and protests.  They weren’t revolutionaries; they were just political reformers who were seen as a threat to the established order and Church, kind of like how the Wesleys were seen a century later. That dreaded word – change.  They were before their time and looked to the Bible for answers.  They can be a great inspiration for all Christians and probably the first real ‘Christian Socialists’! It is interesting to note that many of the leaders of the Leveller movement were ex-Puritans and their following were the poor.  As stated, to me Puritanism was generally a middle class movement, whilst Levellers included everyone, regardless of class or position and were therefore more inclusive. One argument made by them and that Diggers (True Levellers) was who actually introduced a class system?  For it was not God surely? But man’s desire to rule over one another.

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Although this image is Victorian. The argument on class was made by Levellers and the Diggers. It wasn’t an attack on class, but made note that all should be treated equally

Christians should be proud of the actions of the Levellers and for what they stood for, we need to be inclusive like they were and fight for social justice.  If you are someone who follows many of the Puritan writers, then you still should not be against what the Levellers stood for.  Yes they did conflict a lot with the Puritans, but it is worth looking into what the Levellers actually wanted, for yourself. Find out; see if they were a positive force in English politics.

 

 

wesley-preaching
An image of Wesley preaching to the masses. His message was a message to all, and did not focus on class

In the eighteenth century, we can note the rise of Methodism led by Charles and John Wesley. This movement along with the actions taken by key preachers like George Whitfield and Howell Harris has many similarities to Christian Socialism.  In the local prayer meetings and services, there was unlikely to be any issue of class.  Both women and men, poor and rich gathered together to worship.  They also started many Sunday schools to help educate the poor children to read and write.  Methodism promoted a universal fund where those in need to go too if they were in hard times, this can be seen to be a biblical principal as found in 2 Corinthians 8, no one was to go needy.  The church was meant to look after its flock, look after the people in its area and therefore it was to play an important role in the community for everyone.  In fact when the agricultural and industrial revolution took place in England, it was the Methodists who pressed manufacturing owners to treat their workers well and to feed and pay them fairly.  Although we should never consider Methodism as a political movement, it is argued that it prevented revolution in England (compared with the turmoil across the Channel), as it helped quell the concerns of the poor, even if the establishment believed they were trying to stir up revolution by breaking class divides and the like.  Methodism therefore was a movement for everyone, but focused its attention to the needs of the poor, especially their greatest need.

ludlow1b
Written by one of the early Christian Socialists.

If we fast-forward to the 19th century, we will find a vast movement of Christian socialists, some of whom were the founders of the Fabian society, which would latter help in the creation of the Labour Party.   Three founding fathers of what we now call ‘Christian Socialism’ in its modern sense were Fredrick Maurice, John Ludlow and Charles Kingsley.  According to Dr Andrzej Diniejko, ‘They believed that the Christian Gospel contains the key to the social question, particularly in its teaching of the brotherhood of man. The chief mission of the Christian Socialists was to win back the workingmen to the Church. Christian Socialism meant for them social, cross-class co-operation and partnership under the leadership of the Church.’ These three men wrote many tracts and publications.  They advocated ‘the moral regeneration of individuals as a means of alleviating acute social problems.’  They appealed to the charity of the rich, to give to the poor.

untitled
A book which shows the importance of Christian Socialism in the 19th century. Worth a read!!

Victorian Christian Socialism, like today in many respects, was not against the class system. It did not want to bring the whole system down, nor did it want to fight the rich.  What it wanted to do was transform peoples’ attitudes, to fight the injustices in the world, and to be a true light in a dark place.  It is clear that these Christian Socialists were against unrestrained laissez faire Capitalism.  It is also clear that they ‘emphasised the collective responsibility of society to deal with economic problems. The Victorian Christian Socialists contributed to adult education, the co-operative movement, friendly societies and the Labour movement. Christian Socialism placed a greater emphasis upon moral and social requirements of human life than other strands of Victorian socialism.’

social%20gospel
The social gospel which was aimed at improving the lives of the poor. It is our duty as Christians to help the vulnerable, and the gospel tells us this

In the twentieth century, we see movements towards the social gospel. The Social Gospel as it become known tried to apply Christian ethics to social problems, such as such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labour, inadequate labour unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.  Leading Evangelical lights such as John Scott have argued that this movement desperately needs to be revived today.  Although it has links to the ecumenical movement, the social gospel is something many churches have lacked for a number of years.  The Bible is meant to give life and hope, it calls us to proclaim to word, but it also calls us to help the poor and needy, something which we severely lack today.

patriotspaytax
A Campaign slogan by the CoL. Arguing that all should pay tax. Their campaigns range from stopping Sunday trading to housing. Their aim is to help the poor and vulnerable in society

If we fast forward to today, we note that Christian Socialists are still a force in England, notably within the Labour party as the Christians on the Left.  They advocate a fairer tax system, but also no trading on Sundays and state that we must disagree well with other political forces such as the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats.  I am a strong advocate of disagreeing well!  After all, there are Christians on both sides of the political spectrum, who believe that their stance will benefit people more.  I don’t doubt that we all share values of Christian Socialism, and even when we find ourselves in our different political tribes, our primarily focus is always the Kingdom of God.

Christian socialism is not a directly-Biblical notion, but its values are. Its use throughout history has been to help people, to fight injustice.  It differs from other socialism as it does not want to bring down the establishment, rather reform it via the works of the gospel.  Christians have a duty to help people, by getting involved in politics. We can achieve this. However there is often talk of ‘Left versus Right’.  This is not how we as Christians should tackle this issue.  We should love people of different political backgrounds, get passionate about what we believe, warn people of dangerous political followings, but also remember that Christians can be Labour or Conservative, and still have a desire to help people.

 

Concluding thoughts

To conclude, Christian socialism is important to me as I believe it is a way where we can make an impact in people’s lives. Some will disagree and believe in a more Conservative approach, which is fine as well.  What should be the focus is a desire to make a difference no matter what our political leaning is.  We need to focus on the Kingdom, to love one another, and spread the Gospel of our Glorious risen Lord. There should be no hate in Christians of Conservatives or Labour, that is wrong, and if you do hate…cut it out now!  Christian socialism has had an enormous impact in the world’s history and impacted the lives of countless millions.  The values of this are what Jesus has called us to do, love our neighbour, reach out to the poor and outcasts in society and be that light in this dark world.

God is not a capitalist, he’s not a socialist, he’s not Labour, he is not a Conservative, Democrat or Republican. God is not to be put into a political box, he is on no political party side.  This is why even though my personal political beliefs label me as a Christian Socialist, I know that politics is not the be all and end all, we are meant to do his will whatever party is in power and we must work with those from all political backgrounds in order to help all classes in society.  God has his own agenda, and loves his people whatever their political agenda, Labour/Conservative even Liberal Democrats!

Therefore let us disagree well with our brothers and sisters. Capitalism has its many flaws, and has left many poor and needy behind.  It’s our job to help those and care for them, and we all have our different thoughts on how this is done.  For me, answers can be found in Christian Socialism, for others it is not.  Again let us disagree well.  Christian Socialism has a rich and powerful history, God has worked in it for his own agenda, like he has worked in the conservative movements.  We have our different political tribes, but we all belong to one Kingdom, our Father’s.

Make-up – to Wear or Not to Wear?

Note from the editors: we see Eat Write Sleep as a channel for young Christians to share their ideas, life experiences and talents with everyone. Henceforth we shall be inviting a number of such Christians to post their work on our blog. Jemimah has the privilege (or misfortune, depending on which way you look at it!) of being our first ‘guest blogger’. So without further ado… take it away Jemimah!

When I first heard about Eat Write Sleep my reaction was, “What an amazing idea!” Taking the narrow window of the whole world as a topic area, Josh and Michael are two young people consolidating their personal viewpoints on culture, politics and life with the super glue of scripture. And I think it’s fantastic.

Who am I? Jemimah, a Christian girl in my mid-teens and fortunate friend of the writers of this blog, who have kindly invited me to add a seasoning of my own to the simmering compilation of ideas that constitute it.

As a teenage girl who experiences these issues myself, I’m really excited to use God’s word as a primary reference as I delve into some of the hot topics concerning young women in the modern world.

So, what’s my topic? I had so many ideas that this took rather a while to decide on.

However, as a decision had to be made, I eventually chose “Makeup”.

Many Christian girls today wear makeup, many others don’t, and speaking from my own experience, many girls have strong opinions on it.

But what does the Bible say about makeup?

Is it a good thing, or a bad?

In answering these questions, I’ve categorised makeup-wearers into three ‘types’. I realise that this is stereotypical, but seriously – it’s hardly possible to interview every single girl in the world!

So, here are my three ‘types’:

  • the Enhancers
  • the Coverers
  • the Unsures.

The Enhancers first of all. To my view, these are those who consider Scripture and only then decide whether or not they will wear makeup, and how much they’ll wear. Let’s take the 1 Peter 3:3 text to demonstrate what I mean: “Do not let your adornment be merely outward – arranging the hair, wearing gold, or putting on fine apparel – rather let it be in the hidden person of the heart, with the incomparable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is very precious in the sight of God.”

So basically, we shouldn’t be just thinking about what we look like outwardly – our hairstyles, our jewellery and clothes (and makeup!) – but rather worried about what our heart’s like, wanting to have an incomparably beautiful, gentle and receptive heart which is really precious to God.

Does that mean that girls should not wear makeup, full stop?

Well, that is for each girl individually to decide. But with all things, we must keep in mind that we are “the temples of the Holy Spirit” (1 Corinthians 6:19). God’s very spirit lives in us! Surely then, we’ll want to honour Him in how we look after our bodies.

To be perfectly honest, I’m not much of a makeup wearer. Yes, I do use BB cream and mascara on special occasions, for the soul purpose of novelty. I suppose it could be compared with putting on a nice dress for a wedding?

But I don’t think wearing or not wearing is necessarily the issue; what can be is when makeup draws away attention (either your own or others’) from our main goal. If makeup becomes a weight and draws away from the Lord Jesus Christ, then it’s definitely something to cut back on!

And there can be benefits of not wearing makeup regularly!  

  1. Firstly, foundations can be dermatologically harmful.

Personally, I’m not interested in covering my face with any product that will cause dermatological problems on the long run. I see that as plain counter-productivity, and definitely not the way to preserve the “temple of the Holy Spirit”!

  1. Going ‘clean’ is a time-saver.

I don’t think that I could ever imagine getting up earlier to put on makeup; I prefer to have more time to sleep. But remember, there are biblical reasons for not spending too much time on anything that’s not legitimate/furthering the cause of the Gospel. Ephesians 5:16 talks about “redeeming the time”; or in other words using the (relatively short) time we have on this Earth to the best ability that we can, to bring glory to our Heavenly Father and spread the good news of the Gospel.

Of course, it’s impossible to spend every free moment we have in spreading the Gospel – that’s not what I mean. Many of us have busy family lives, busy church lives and a job or are in full-time education – and helping at home and at church and working hard is a ministry in itself.

But perhaps spending less time in front of the mirror in the morning would give you more time to phone someone who would benefit from a call or do some washing up?

It may be only 30 minutes that you’ll save each day, but every little helps – and you’d be surprised how much a half-hour ‘free’ on your schedule can do.

  1. Making up on occasion is a novelty!

In July of this summer, I was a bridesmaid at my elder brother’s wedding and decided to wear some makeup. I admit, this was more for my brother’s and sister-in-law’s benefit than my own. I didn’t want to ruin their wedding photos by my eye-bags and spots.

However, it wasn’t actually that bad! I made the dangerous decision of entrusting my elder sister with ‘the deed’, and was expecting the worst. But it was a novelty; and made the day, and the photos afterwards, that little bit more special.

So let’s think about why we’re wearing makeup before we put it on.

Let’s not wear makeup to dramatically change our faces, but rather recognise that God has created us in our mothers’ womb for His own glory! I don’t know about you, but personally, I find that amazing. He “knit” each human being into the complex forms they are today (Psalm 139:13). WOWZA.

But what about Coverers?

Well, we girls have a tendency of overdoing things sometimes, and it’s the same with makeup. Those that struggle with overdoing makeup are the ones that I would class as Coverers.

I think that this ‘covering’ attitude arises from one main source:

What others look like.

If I didn’t struggle with this myself I might say that’s it’s irrational. Of course, it is, but how easy it can be to look around at others and then compare ourselves to them and put ourselves down.

I just want to encourage you to remember that ‘covering’ is not a biblical solution to this problem, even if it’s an easy route: God has made every human being to his praise, and so completely covering our faces because we think they’re ‘unworthy’ or worthless is actually wrong!

Try and keep in mind that Christ is our goal, not any dream wardrobe or ‘perfect face’.

Peer pressure may be hard at times too, but ultimately the way man sees is different to how God sees – and how He views us is what we should really be worried about. 1 Samuel 16:7 says, “The Lord does not see as man sees; for man looks at the outward appearance but the Lord looks at the heart.”

Isn’t that amazing!

God is certainly not superficial in any way – rather, He wants us to have hearts that are holy and honouring to Him.

Don’t you think it’s contrary to God’s perfect attitude and superficial to think about what we look like for an unhealthy amount of time?

Let’s put it like this: For me, when I’m thinking about my outward appearance – in front of a mirror or choosing my outfit for the day are classic examples – it’s pretty much a definite that I’m directing my thoughts away from God.

This is both unbiblical and unhelpful! As Christian young women, we’ve got to remember to go about our daily lives in everything – be it in makeup or anything else – bringing Jesus with us.

What does this mean practically?

Well, something slightly different for each girl, I believe. Some people agree with makeup, some don’t, but as the Bible is not prescriptive about whether or not to wear makeup, I think it’s up to the individual to apply as they see fit, according to scripture.

This is not a licence to apply our own standards under the banner of ‘having our own reading of the bible’. In fact, it’s quite the opposite! As we apply God’s standards in our lives, it will definitely become more evident for all of us that this way is a way of self-denial.

Yuk. Sounds horrible, doesn’t it?

It does to me, but that’s because I still have a sinful nature which is always trying to tell me that “my way is the best way”. But it’s simply not true. God “knows His plans for you” (Jeremiah 29:11), and they’re far better than any human can think up.

He knows the future, gal.

Last but by no means less common are the Unsures. This third group is formed of people that either wear or do not wear makeup because they have no opinions on it.

And for the most part, I’ve seen that people in this group are prone to being rather ill-informed on the topic. They can also be purely confused as to the opinions they have formed due to what they have heard, read or watched. So, for those that find themselves in this category, let’s try and dig into a bit of Scripture to discover God’s way.

1 Peter 3:15 says that we should “always have a reason for the hope that is in us”. This is intended primarily towards the truths of the gospel and how we should be ready at all times to give a defence of the same to non-believers. But as the “hope” that is in us links to our Saviour the Lord Jesus Christ, surely this verse underpins every aspect of our Christian walk! We are members of the body of Christ, and as such, we have a duty to be well informed as to our reasons for opinions.

What if you are an Unsure and you don’t know how to go about forming your opinions?

Well, rather than automatically putting on makeup without thinking, perhaps take a break to ask yourself why you actually wear it. Is it a must?

Remember, if you choose to wear makeup, it should be for enhancing and not to change the vessel that Christ has crafted.

However, there is also the people that we meet to think about. These people can be affected by the message that we send by what we wear, how much we wear and how we wear it.

I recognise that this can be a tad sensitive as a topic area, as all of us have a habit of being selfish when it comes to putting others before themselves. But as I pose this point, I hope you’ll see how crucial it is.

Take eyeliner and -shadow, for example. Is it seriously necessary to wear a thick layer of either of these alongside mascara?

As a pair, eyeliner and eyeshadow can put forward different messages, according to how they are worn. Indeed, if the wearer chooses to wear them so, they can cause a gothic or emo mood to form, which can be less-than-helpful for a Christian!

We are “children of light” (1 Thessalonians 5:5), and if we put forward an image of someone who is misogynistic or self-hating (which is essentially what emo and gothic styles do), surely that is creating a persona of someone who is “of the darkness”, just as Paul says Christians are not to be? No, this isn’t me trashing all eyeliner and eye-shadow as evil…rather, it’s a caution against makeup styles that form a negative image.

Taking it from another perspective, it can be equally possible, via makeup, to put forward a provocative message. Think of the effect deep eye-makeup coupled with crimson lips could bring – and will bring if we’re not careful. The chief purpose of unnaturally-coloured eye-shadow and lipstick is to draw attention to the eyes and lips, so do give it a thought whether the makeup you choose is so innocent; or not.

I know what you’re thinking now, not this ‘think about the guys’ thing again! But think of Proverbs 31, if it helps.

I fall short of this so often! I’m too quick to think of myself before others, and I’m sure many of you young Christian women out there often feel the same.

But remember that the joy of the Lord is our strength, and the work of grace in us making us want to live to serve Christ in the first place is all of Him and nothing of ourselves!

And in closing…Please don’t cover up the face that God has given you simply for the point of doing so! God has made your body, it’s glorious, so yet again I ask you to pray to Him for help in using it more to His glory as you live to honour and serve Him.

The Reformation: What were the consequences?

Happy Reformation Day everyone! What was the Reformation you ask?  Well it was when the Protestant church broke away from the Catholic Church, all starting with Martin Luther on the 31st October with his 95 theses which he nailed to a church door.  This along with the thoughts and ideas of other theologians were spread across the continents thanks to the recent invention in a printing press.  It was a movement that shocked the western world and made us who we are today.  In this brief post I want to state a few facts as to what the reformation achieved both good and bad!

  • Paved the way for ordinary people to read their bibles, which in turn allowed them to think about religion and faith themselves
  • Paved the way for the free trade and a rising middle class
  • It created a movement away from an established church and religion, but instead allowed for personal faith and freedom of religion
  • It ensured a more centralised government
  • It paved the way for science
  • It created the nation state. What we know as nations today are a result of the reformation! People settled where they found likeness in religion, whether that was Catholicism, or the varying forms of Protestantism. All the countries north of Germany became Protestant, whilst those below stayed Catholic, whilst the Holy Roman Empire was torn between the two.
  • It led to a surprising increase in Witch Trials. This was due to many reasons, one of which was difference in religion, the other being national identities. Most trials happened in across borders. Another reason for trials was that there was still a large amount of superstition in countries of witches and bad harvests
  • It led to the Thirty Years War, which was arguably the worst conflict Europe has ever seen. Every nation was involved across Europe, from Sweden with Gustav Adolphus to Spain, it was a war in which the rules of war were abandoned. This war could be argued as a war for freedom, a war for personal faith, but also a war about economic prosperity and land. Rulers saw what could be gained, such as Catholic France fighting with the Protestants due to their hatred of Spain. Whilst Gustav noted the trade that could be gained from entering the war.
  • It saw a rise in Propaganda, both Catholics and Protestants were writing things about each other, which hardly any of it was true. The main reason being is that they were scared of each other.
  • The Reformation showed the evilness of man. The Catholic Church wanted its control, whilst the Protestants were bickering amongst themselves. It also showed how great God is, raising men in difficult times to bring the word to ordinary people.
  • It showed that Protestants and Catholics cannot work together. Doctrinally, the churches are so different. This doesn’t mean we should start waging war again, far from it, love is always the answer, but we must distance ourselves from the Catholic leadership and doctrine.

The Reformation was and is a marvellous time for Protestants, God worked through it and brought the word to people like you and me. This doesn’t mean we should ignore the problems it did create because of mankind’s sin.  Total war saw hundreds of thousands perish, whole cities destroyed, because of a desire to control people.  So when we think on Reformation Day, be grateful to God for what he has done, for shinning the light, whilst remembering all those who died in a conflict that was born of sin.

It is a great period to study and 600 odd words won’t do it justice, but hopefully this has given you a brief insight!